From The Independent:
The world is witnessing militant Iraqi groups kidnap and execute journalists like never before. Syrian state, non-state and now Islamic State (Isis) actors also target journalists. This trend of systematically targeting members of the media has widened to include citizen journalists since 2011.
Citizen journalism has manifested out of the conflict in the Middle East and the era of information warfare. Many of these citizen journalists are people made up of conflict affected, displaced individuals who articulate their stories via social media platforms. As the Arab Uprisings continue, citizen journalists harness digital media technology to reach a global audience.
According to Abdalla Salmi, former BBC Monitoring Arabic Media Analyst, “Citizen journalism reflects the press situation in countries. The more closed a nation is, the more citizen journalists there are.”
Salmi pointed out further that, programmes such as BBC Arabic’s “I Am the Witness” and France 24’s “Observer” and Al-Jazeera’s “The Stream” are a few mainstream examples of the digital-traditional media ecosystem that has manifested between traditional and citizen journalists.
Basic citizen journalism: Stuck your head ut the window and tell what you see.